A number of studies have investigated whether use of mini-companies increases desire for self-employment and perceptions of entrepreneurship skills and business skills. Peterman and Kennedy (2003) explore changes in the perceptions of a sample of secondary school students enrolled in JA-YEs programme in Australia. Using a pre-test post-test control group design, they find that participants reported significantly higher perceptions of both desirability and feasibility for entrepreneurship after the programme. A study by Oosterbeek et al. (2010) of 250 students in the Netherlands is less positive; the intended influence on students’ entrepreneurial skills failed to appear. Johansen and Clausen (2011) conclude that mini-companies stimulate start-up intentions, and Johansen, Clausen and Schanke (2013) find that participants have a more positive view on entrepreneurs than non-participants. A Portuguese study by do Paço et al. (2011) concludes that mini-companies could contribute to the development of entrepreneurial competences and more start-ups, but the sample was small (74 respondents). A long-term study Johansen and Foss (2013) shows that mini-companies have a positive impact on women’s perception of business skills and a positive impact on men’s preference for self-employment.
Some studies have investigated the start-up frequency after participation in mini-companies. Johansen (2010) looked into 1000 former mini-company participants from 20 to 30 years of age in six European countries, and found more entrepreneurs among them than in the national population. The study points out that mini-companies increase the likelihood of starting up a company before turning 25 years old and before the completion of a university degree. Wennberg (2010) compares JA-YE Sweden’s register of mini-company-alumni with Statistics Sweden and finds that former mini-company participants are more likely than the control group to engage in entrepreneurship. Using data from a Norwegian test-control group study with 1200 respondents, Johansen (2013) finds a positive correlation between participation in mini-companies and start-up activity.
A few Norwegian studies with 1100-3000 respondents have investigated whether mini-companies have an impact on academic performance and school attendance. Johansen, Schanke and Solheim (2011) indicate that mini-companies might reduce school absence, but Johansen (2014) does not find the same effect. Johansen and Schanke (2014) presents econometric analyses that show a higher Grade Point Average among participants in mini-companies compared to non-participants in lower secondary school, but no difference between the two groups in upper secondary school. Johansen (2012) presents similar findings. These results could be reflection of the various ways the mini-companies are taught at different education levels.
More likely to start their own business. The Study “Experiences from participating in JA-YE Company Programme” revealed that Company Programme alumni demonstrate start-up rates which are three times as high (15%) than among the average population in Europe (5%-6%).
Alumni companies tend to be more successful. In a study conducted by Kingston University Business School, “50 Year of Young Enterprise” the key findings around Company Programme alumni-run companies showed that they tend to have a higher turnover, employ more people, are more innovative and diverse.
Developed employability skills and attitudes and are more successful in their careers. In a study conducted by BCG (Boston Consulting Group), “Making an Impact”, JA alumni cited JA participation as a significant source of impact on their ability to get a job, performance success at work, and personal network.
Better future earnings. In Canada, the average income for JA alumni is 50% higher than non-alumni (Making an Impact, BCG study Assessing Junior Achievement of Canada’s Value Creation)
We also find a number of research reports on the impact of mini-companies. In the survey by van den Berghe (2010), respondents found that mini-companies provided them with the knowledge to start a company, and made them more interested in starting a business. Reports from UK (“50 Years of Young Enterprise”, Kingston University 2013) and Canada (“Making an Impact”, James Tucker, Boston Consulting Group 2011) show positive effects in several areas compared to their non-participating counterparts. The mini-company alumni have better future earnings, are twice as likely to start their own business and are more passionate about their jobs.
- Higher Job creation – 50% more start ups!
- The intention of setting up a company is higher then among non JA participants
- Higher revenue in their companies
- Higher survival rate of companies
- More positive view of their future and ambition level
- Higher motivation and higher sense of perceived connectedness to school and society.
- More JAYE Alumni are in leadership positions
- JA-YE alumin feel they have the skills and knowledge to set up a business if there is an opportunity.
- The YE alumni are more passionate about their jobs
- They make more money
- Less unemployment
- Teachers recommend this way of teaching to their colleagues